Tag Archives: magnetic

Goal-line technology: Hawk-Eye claim to have edge on GoalRef

Hawk-Eye claim to have the edge on goal-line technology rivals GoalRef

|

UPDATED:

14:47 GMT, 8 December 2012

The head of the company which makes the Hawk-Eye system – one of two goal-line technology systems being used at the Club World Cup – says experience gives the product an edge over the competition.

Hawk-Eye is already used for tracking balls in tennis and cricket. For football, its system uses seven high-speed cameras set up at different angles at each goal to calculate whether the ball has crossed the goal-line or not.

Info: The Hawk-Eye system tells the referee if the ball has crossed the line thanks to cameras like this (below)

Info: The Hawk-Eye system tells the referee if the ball has crossed the line thanks to cameras like this (below)

On the look out: A Hawk-Eye camera

On the look out: A Hawk-Eye camera

It is being used for Club World Cup games at Toyota Stadium, while GoalRef, a magnetic-field-based system developed by German company Fraunhofer, will be deployed at Yokohama Stadium.

'Our experience that we have
consistently delivered over the years makes us a brand that people can
trust,' Hawk-Eye managing director Stephen Carter said on Saturday. 'Our
system has been installed in more than 230 stadiums worldwide over a
period of 12 years.'

Talk: Stephen Carter, managing director of Hawk-Eye, explains the goal-line technology

Talk: Stephen Carter, managing director of Hawk-Eye, explains the goal-line technology

Demonstration: A FIFA official shows off the equipment

Demonstration: A FIFA official shows off the equipment

Another advantage of Hawk-Eye, Carter
says, is that it doesn't interfere with the field of play. GoalRef uses
magnetic sensors in the goal posts and the crossbar to track a special
ball.

'We don't need to interfere with the field of play in any way,' Carter said. 'It's a totally passive system.'

The competition: GoalRef technology was used for the first time during the FIFA Club World Cup in Yokohama on Thursday

The competition: GoalRef technology was used for the first time during the FIFA Club World Cup in Yokohama on Thursday

GoalRef sensors are set up in the goal

GoalRef uses a microchip in the ball and low magnetic waves around the goal

Like GoalRef, the technology of Hawk-Eye can allow an outcome to be delivered within one second.

Before each match, officials will test
the system is working in both goals. The referee will continue to have
full autonomy in making any final decision during the match, using
goal-line technology as an additional aid.

The data from the Club World Cup will
be used to help FIFA decide, by the end of March, which technology it
will use for the six venues at the 2013 Confederations Cup in Brazil.
Now all the tournament needs is a controversial goal.

'It would be nice to have a phantom
goal at some point in the tournament so we can prove how well our system
works,' Carter said.

Matchwinner: Sanfrecce Hiroshima's Toshihiro Aoyama (second left) celebrates scoring the only goal in the first match in which the technology has been used

Matchwinner: Sanfrecce Hiroshima's Toshihiro Aoyama (second left) celebrates scoring the only goal in the first match in which the technology has been used

Back of the net: Auckland City goalkeeper Tamati Williams (right) reacts after Hiroshima's goal

Back of the net: Auckland City goalkeeper Tamati Williams (right) reacts after Hiroshima's goal

FIFA decided to introduce both systems
after they won 'unanimous' support from the International Football
Association Board panel. FIFA president Sepp Blatter was a member of the
IFAB panel.

Blatter was initially opposed to the
idea of using goal-line technology but changed his stance two years ago
when he saw England denied a clear goal by midfielder Frank Lampard
against Germany at the 2010 World Cup.

Two days later, Blatter said FIFA must
reopen the debate, though insisted it must involve only goal-line
decisions. Video replay remains off limits for judgment calls, such as
penalties or offside.

Goal-line technology signed off for football

Over the line… finally: After all the controversy, goal-line technology is signed off in historic day for football

|

UPDATED:

17:12 GMT, 5 July 2012

Goal-line technology has finally been approved and will soon be introduced to the Barclays Premier League and beyond.

After a long list of controversies – including Frank Lampard's 'goal' against Germany at the 2010 World Cup – the game is ready for change.

The International FA Board (IFAB) gave the go-ahead to both the Hawk-Eye and the GoalRef systems at a meeting in Zurich.

The Club World Cup in Tokyo involving Chelsea will be the first event where the technology will be introduced. Technology could be introduced into the Premier League as soon as the new year.

Let's go: Sepp Blatter is a firm believer in goal-line tehcnology

Let's go: Sepp Blatter is a firm believer in goal-line tehcnology

Kicking off: Blatter is a huge fan of introducing goal-line technology

Kicking off: Blatter is a huge fan of introducing goal-line technology

So, what are the two systems that will be used

HAWK-EYE

A camera-based system developed by the British company Hawkeye, which was bought last year by Japanese corporation Sony and which already has systems used by tennis and cricket.

Six or seven high-speed cameras at both ends of the stadium, mounted on the roof, track the ball in flight and a computer system calculates exactly where the ball is on the pitch, sending an electronic message to a watch-like receiver worn by the match officials when it crosses the line.

The only issue is whether the Hawk-Eye cameras would work in the very rare instance of the ball being completely covered by the keeper's body.

FIFA have insisted that the pictures will not be shown on TV or stadium screens after any controversial incident, with only the officials being alerted whether the ball crossed the line.

GOALREF

A joint Danish-German system, GoalRef uses magnetic fields to detect whether the ball has crossed the line. Three magnetic strips are placed inside the outer lining of the ball, between the bladder and the outer casing, and when the ball crosses the line these are detected by sensors inside the goalposts and crossbar.

The sensors send out electronic waves which are disrupted when the ball crosses the line, and a computer then sends a message to the match officials' watch receivers in less than a second.

Installation costs should be lower than Hawk-Eye but still significant. There remains possible issues over deals with manufacturers to allow the magnetic strips inside their balls, but GoalRef have already been in contact with the manufacturers.

FIFA general secretary Jerome Valcke said they intended to also bring goal-line technology in for next year's Confederations Cup and the 2014 World Cup in Brazil.

Valcke said FIFA would pay for the systems – around $250,000 per stadium – and leave them in place in the stadiums.

FA general secretary Alex Horne said: 'We believe that it is a great day for football. From an English perspective today is a hugely important day, it is a cause we have had on our agenda for a number of years.

'This is about having the right technology helping the referee in a relatively rare occurrence – the scoring of a goal.'

The Premier League have vowed to bring in goal-line technology swiftly.

A statement read: 'The Premier League has been a long term advocate of goal-line technology. We welcome today's decision by IFAB and will engage in discussions with both Hawkeye and GoalRef in the near future with a view to introducing goal-line technology as soon as is practically possible.'

With Goal-Ref, officials can be alerted instantly to the ball crossing the line

With Goal-Ref, officials can be alerted instantly to the ball crossing the line

Once the ball crosses the line, the cameras and computers will instantly detect the goal and inform the officials

Once the ball crosses the line, the cameras and computers will instantly detect the goal and inform the officials

A brief history of football's innovations

1863: At an meeting at the Freemasons' Tavern in London, the FA is founded plus the first set of rules. The Cambridge Rules – produced by undergraduates at Cambridge University in the 1840s – are rewritten to provide the game's first uniform regulations.
1869: Goal-kicks are introduced for the first time, with corners following three years later.
1875: The crossbar replaces tape as the means of marking the top of the goal.
1878: A referee uses a whistle for the first time and the first floodlit match takes place at Bramall Lane between two local teams.
1882: The football associations of Great Britain unify their rules and form the International Football Association Board – the body that determines the Laws of the Game.
1891: Penalties are awarded for the first time, the goal net is accepted into the laws and the referee is allowed on the field of play.
1902: The penalty box and spot are introduced after it's decided penalties would be awarded for fouls committed in an area 18 yards from the goal line and 44 yards wide. The six-yard box was also introduced, although it took another 35 years for the 'D' shape at the edge of the area to be brought in.
1912: Goalkeepers are prevented from handling the ball outside the penalty area.
1925: The offside law – where players are onside if there are three players between the ball and goal – are reduced to two players.
1938: Laws of the Game are made by IFAB member Stanley Rous, who did such a good job that it was not revised again until 1997.
1958: Substitutes are permitted for the first time, albeit only for an injured goalkeeper and one other injured player.
1970: Red and yellow cards are introduced for the 1970 World Cup in Mexico.
1990: The offside law is changed in favour of the attacker, who is now onside if level with the penultimate defender.
1992: Goalkeepers are forbidden from handling back-passes from a team-mate's foot.
1994: The technical area is introduced into the Laws of the Game, with the fourth official following the next year.

A
comprehensive series of tests have been carried out on the systems by
Swiss scientists. Both Hawk-Eye and
GoalRef are deemed to have passed the tests satisfactorily.

There will still be a delay before either
system can be used in competitive football, however – each will need to
be licensed, installed and then tested in every venue to make sure it
is working properly.

The IFAB, who are meeting in Zurich, also insist the technology is used only as an aid to referees to make a decision, rather than being the deciding factor in whether the ball has crossed the line.

It means referees can still decide not to award a goal based on what they see even if the systems are indicating the ball has crossed the line.

FIFA's president Sepp Blatter is a firm supporter of goal-line technology, having changed his mind after Lampard's disallowed goal.

The clamour increased last month after
Ukraine's disallowed goal against England and has also served to sweep
aside any lingering doubts over the systems' margins of error.

However,
FIFA are insistent that, initially at least, the technology's signal of
a goal should only be transmitted to the match officials and not to the
crowd or TV audience.

The
IFAB is made up of FIFA, who have four votes, and the four home
nations, who have one vote each. Any law change needs at least six
votes.

The body will
also consider whether the UEFA experiment with extra officials has been a
success and should be continued, but UEFA president Michel Platini will
not be going to Zurich to argue the case in person.

The England v Ukraine incident, which
saw John Terry hook the ball back into play when it was already across
the line, could hardly have fallen worse for Platini.

No goal was awarded despite the extra official being no more than 10 yards away and staring straight along the line. That
suited Blatter perfectly, who opposes the extra two officials on the
grounds that in many countries there are not a sufficient number of
referees.

The tests on the technology were
carried out by the EMPA – the Swiss Federal Laboratory for Materials
Science and Technology – and the results discussed by IFAB members at a
meeting earlier this month.

The
Hawk-Eye system – developed by a British company now owned by Sony – is
based on cameras and GoalRef, a Danish-German development, uses
magnetic fields.

Moving the goalposts: Blatter's mind was changed following Frank Lampard's strike in the 2010 World Cup

Remember this Goal-line technology may mean incidents such as Frank Lampard's 'goal' in the 2010 World Cup will be accepted

They even themselves out: John Terry was too late to stop Marko Devic's shot crossing the line - but the goal was not given

They even themselves out: John Terry was too late to stop Marko Devic's shot crossing the line – but the goal was not given

Each system is required to send an immediate message to a watch worn by the match officials within a second of the ball crossing the line.

The tests included exposing the equipment and watches to extreme heat and cold, as well as humidity and heavy rain. Experiments also took place during live matches including England's match against Belgium on June 2.

FIFA's Club World Cup in Japan in December is likely to be the first competition where the technology is used.

How other sports have led the way with technology…

CRICKET
The third umpire was first introduced in international cricket 20 years ago, primarily for on-field umpires to call for assistance for run-out and stumping decisions and whether catches had carried to fielders. Over the years the remit has been expanded as technologies have advanced with third umpires now having access to super-slow motion, infrared imaging, stump microphones and the predictive ball-tracking 'Hawk-Eye', which can rule on lbws. Players can now challenge umpires' decisions by calling for a TV review.

TENNIS
Wimbledon watchers will remember the bleeps of 'Cyclops', the infrared system which was used to detect whether serves were in or out and was introduced at the championships in 1980. These days the showpiece matches utilise Hawk-Eye, which tracks the ball all over the court. If a player disagrees with a line judge's call, they can call for a Hawk-Eye review and are allowed two incorrect challenges per set.

RUGBY LEAGUE
The video referee came into rugby league with the launch of Super League in 1996 and has become part of the competition's fabric, although it is still only used in live TV matches for cost reasons. The system has been refined over the years but the video referee can rule on a wide range of decisions when called upon by the referee, with the exception of the forward pass, for which camera angles can be deceptive. The system is also used in televised Challenge Cup ties, Australia's NRL and selected international fixtures.

RUGBY UNION
The 15-man code paved the way for the introduction of the Television Match Official in 2001. They are now regularly used at the top level but their scope remains limited with referees only able to call for assistance in acts of scoring. That could change later this year with the International Rugby Board having approved trials for reviews on other matters within the field of play.
Since last season the TMO has been used in all English Premiership games, not just those being televised.

AMERICAN FOOTBALL
The NFL introduced a replay system in 1986 with an extra official used to review certain plays. It was dropped in 1992 amid general feeling it had done little to improve the game but a new method of coaches' challenges was brought in seven years later. When a challenge is made in the NFL, it is the on-field referee himself who will watch replays, under a hood, on the sidelines. He must see clear evidence of an error and has 60 seconds to make a decision. Coaches are allowed to challenge two decisions per game but if both are successful are allowed a third. If a challenge is unsuccessful, the team is charged with a timeout. Challenges cannot be made in the final two minutes of each half, or overtime, but all plays are observed by an additional TV official.

Manuel Neuer not fazed by Didier Drogba

Neuer favours Drogba duel over nerve-wracking television appearance

|

UPDATED:

21:30 GMT, 18 May 2012

The thought of peering into the whites of Didier Drogba’s eyes may send a shudder through Manuel Neuer, but he’d take it any day over the question that loomed before him not long ago.

To Nurnberg’s Martin Behaim, we owe the oldest surviving what A compass, B slide rule, C globe, D magnetic compass. The Bayern keeper was on a roll, but this was the toughest so far. He could have guessed but thought better of it. There was one million euros riding on his answer.

Neuer may be competing for the most coveted prize in club football, in Saturday’s Champions’ League final, but playing for high stakes is nothing new to him after one of the performances of his life on a recent celebrity edition of Who Wants To Be A Millionaire.

Safe hands: Manuel Neuer will keep goal for Bayern Munich on Saturday

Safe hands: Manuel Neuer will keep goal for Bayern Munich on Saturday

The memory of sitting opposite Germany’s version of Chris Tarrant, who had the same deliberate style of staring intently before finally calling an answer correct or not, is burned on Neuer’s mind for all time.

He came up with 14 right answers, before admitting defeat over a final obscure question about 15th century philosopher and astronomer Behaim, but needed some assistance along the way. It took a nod from a fellow-contestant in the background, singer Maite Kelly, to convince him The Joker was a character from the Batman series, while he used up his 50-50 option for the 16,000 euro question, phone-a-friend for 125,000 and consult the audience for 500,000.

He outshone his two rivals – Kelly and comedian Michael Mittermeier each bailing out after winning 125,000 – but he still winced, at Bayern’s training ground, when Sportsmail asked him to relive his 40-minute appearance in German TV station RTL’s hot seat.

‘Honestly, it was an ordeal,’ he said. ‘Give me a penalty shoot-out in the Champions’ League final any day of the week. At least you have some idea of what is coming when you face someone from the penalty spot. I’d take that every time.

‘It was incredibly nerve-wracking. I was sitting there under the TV lights, in front of a studio audience, for well over half-an-hour, and the nearer I got to the million euros, the greater the pressure.

Main man: Didier Drobga (right) will be Chelsea's dangerman in Munich

Main man: Didier Drobga (right) will be Chelsea's dangerman in Munich

‘Of course, the questions got more difficult, and while you’re trying to decide which answer to go for, you are conscious of how much is at stake for the charity you’ve chosen.

‘Football is my day-to-day job, not answering questions on so many different topics. It was like stepping into a different world. I can’t remember all the questions, but I’ll always remember the last one. I can recite it to you now, if you want.

‘I thought about it for a few seconds, then decided, as I’d never even heard of Martin Behaim, and had used up all my lives, I’d better not risk it. I just said “Now is the end of the gamble” and sat back, relieved it was over.

‘When I was asked what I would have gone for, I said A, so it’s as well I didn’t try and guess. The correct answer was C, globe. The money went to a charity tackling child poverty, so I was really pleased about that. I thought it might have impressed my team-mates, but when I got back to the training ground, all I got was: “I could have answered that.” I’d like to see them try!’

One-time Manchester United target Neuer might have fared better with a question on amateur psychology, judging by the way he solved the one problem that confronted him after joining Bayern.

Preparation: Bayern Munich's side train ahead of Saturday's showdown

Preparation: Bayern Munich's side train ahead of Saturday's showdown

‘At Schalke, I always had a lot to do in games, but here, I found there were long spells where I just didn’t see the ball,’ he said. ‘That can make it difficult maintaining concentration levels. You have to be ready if you are suddenly called into action, but it is not easy if you have been a virtual spectator.

‘It needed a change of mindset, and I came up with the idea of making use of any break in play. Now, if there is a stoppage of any kind, I walk into the back of my net, have a drink from my water bottle and just switch off for a few moments. Once play resumes, the switch goes back on again.

‘I have found that helps me stay focused. When you are not seeing much of the ball for long periods, you have to guard against your concentration wavering. It works, and it could be particularly important in the final.

‘Chelsea are very strong defensively, and as the opposition, you can be lulled into thinking you have an advantage, because they appear to be on the back foot. But that can be dangerous, because suddenly they land a punch on you, and it can leave you hurt and dazed. We saw that against Barcelona, and we have to be wary of it. I have to be alive to that threat.’

Asked if he may finally say sorry to Frank Lampard for the goal-that-never-was in the last World Cup, Neuer replied: ‘No, it is the referee who owes him an apology. I have not had the chance to speak to Frank about it. Perhaps if we are together in the doping control after the game, it might be a topic of conversation to help pass the time!’

MLS happy to trial goal-line technology in America

MLS happy to lead the way and trial goal-line technology in America

|

UPDATED:

00:04 GMT, 20 April 2012

Major League Soccer would implement goal-line technology quickly if its approved in July by the sport's rules-making body.

'We're interested in being a test league and we hope that we could achieve that,' MLS Commissioner Don Garber said on Thursday.

'I would be open to whatever it is that could be done to ensure that we have goal-line technology.'

The International Football Association Board meets on July 2 and could approve Sony Corp's Hawk-Eye or GoalRef, owned by a German-Danish company.

Over the line: Frank Lampard sees his 'goal' against Germany ruled out

Over the line: Frank Lampard sees his 'goal' against Germany ruled out

Following a series of erroneous calls in high-profile games ranging from the 2010 World Cup to this year's FA Cup, there could be more support for goal-line technology among tradition-bound football officials.

Hawk-Eye is a camera-based ball-tracking system used in tennis and cricket. GoalRef employs a magnetic field with a special ball. Both could be approved. Each system sends a signal within a second of the ball crossing the line to the referee, who makes the final decision.

If approval is granted in July, Garber said, MLS could implement the technology at some point during this season, which began in March. The Premier League hopes to use it for its 2012-13 season, which starts in August.

Not over: Chelsea's Juan Mata sees his 'goal' given despite not crossing the line

Not over: Chelsea's Juan Mata sees his 'goal' given despite not crossing the line

'There's a lot more that we need to learn about it, understanding the process,' Garber said. “The bottom line here is that I would be open to using goal-line technology as soon as it is made available.'

He said the league's policy of using video review to punish players for diving was working.

'Americans generally … view that aspect of the game as not fitting with our culture or our view of fairness,' he said. 'We have almost eliminated that unpleasant or unsavoury aspect of the game from our sport.'